Worth reading

Polish-language literature

Bednarczuk E., Graficzny rozwój litery, Warszawa 1956.
Biniaś-Szkopek M., Delimata M., Skrzypczak Ł., Podstawy paleografii łacińskiej: skrypt dla studentów archiwistyki, Poznań 2007.
Bobowski K., Ewolucja pisma neogotyckiego na Śląsku od początku XVI do połowy XX wieku, Wrocław-Warszawa 1992.
Bobowski K., O metodach identyfikacji rąk pisarskich rękopisach średniowiecznych, „Studia Źródłoznawcze”, 1985, t. 29, s. 1-7.
Bobowski K., Możliwości rozszerzenia zakresu badań paleograficznych, w: Tradycje i perspektywy nauk pomocniczych historii w Polsce, Kraków 1995, s. 143-147.
Bobowski K., Skróty w piśmie neogotyckim. Na podstawie materiału śląskiego od początku XVI do połowy XX wieku, Wrocław 1994.
Falęcki T., Tablice do nauki czytania pisma neogotyckiego dla początkujących, Kraków 2000.
Gieysztor A., Zarys dziejów pisma łacińskiego, Warszawa 1973.
Gieysztor A., Zarys nauk pomocniczych historii, Warszawa 1948.
Gieysztor A., Problem karolińskiej reformy pisma, “Archeologia”, 1952-1953, t. 5, s. 155-176.
Górski K., Neografia gotycka. Podręcznik pisma neogotyckiego XVI-XX w., Warszawa 1978.
Górski K., Zarys dziejów pisma neogotyckiego w Polsce (od w. XVI), “Archeion”, 1969, t. 51, s. 117-126.
Horodyski B., Podręcznik paleografii ruskiej, Kraków 1951.
Juda M., Pismo drukowane w Polsce XV-XVIII wieku, Lublin 2001.
Krzyżanowski S., Album palaeographicum, Kraków 1959.
Krzyżanowski S., Monumenta Poloniae Palaeographica, Kraków 1907-1910.
Krzyżanowski S., Specimina palaeographica, Kraków 1913.
Pietkiewicz K., Cyrylica. Skrypt do nauki odczytywania pisma staroruskiego i rosyjskiego dla studentów archiwistyki, Poznań 1996.
Porębski S.A., Paleografia łacińska. Podręcznik dla studentów, Warszawa 1997.
Semkowicz W., Paleografia łacińska, Kraków 2011.
Słowiński J., Dawna sztuka pisania a możliwości identyfikacji pisma, w: Kultura piśmienna średniowiecza i czasów nowożytnych. Problemy, konteksty badawcze, red. P. Dymmel, B. Trelińska, Lublin 1998, s. 209-219.
Słowiński J., Probationes pennae jako źródło w badaniach paleograficznych, w: Venerabiles, nobiles et honesti. Studia z dziejów społeczeństwa Polski średniowiecznej. Prace ofiarowane Profesorowi Januszowi Bieniakowi w siedemdziesiątą rocznicę urodzin i czterdziestolecie pracy naukowej, red. Radzimiński A., Supruniuk A., Wroniszewski J., Toruń 1997, s. 539-551.
Słowiński J., Rozwój pisma łacińskiego w Polsce XVI-XVIII wieku. Studium paleograficzne, Lublin 1992.
Szymański J., Pismo łacińskie i jego rola w kulturze, Wrocław 1975.
Trelińska B., Gotyckie pismo epigraficzne w Polsce, Lublin 1991.
Winiarczyk M., Skróty łacińskie w książkach drukowanych z dodatkiem skrótów greckich, Wrocław 1977.
Wojtowicz J., Początki pisma słowiańskiego, Poznań 2000.
Wierzbowski T., Vademecum. Wykaz skrótów i słowniczek łacińsko-polski, Warszawa 1984.

Foreign-language works

Ajpłatow G.N., Russkaja paleografia, Moskwa 2003.
Bieljajew I.S., Prakticzeskij kurs izuczenija drewniej russkoj skoropisi dlja cztienia rukopisiej XV-XVIII stoletij, Moskwa 1911.
Battelli Giulio, Lezioni di paleografia, Citta del Vaticano 2002.
Bretholz B., Lateinische Paläographie, Leipzig, 1911-1912.
Cappelli A., Lexicon abbreviaturarum: Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane, Milano 1899.
Czerepnin Ł.W., Russkaja paleografia, Moskwa 1956.
De Lasola F., Esercizi di paleografia latina, trascrizioni, commenti e tavole, Roma 1998.
Delbanco H., Schreibschule der deutschen Schrift. Eine Anleitung zum selbständigen Erlernen der deutschen Schreibschrift, Verlag Bund für deutsche Schrift und Sprache e.V., 2005.
Dülfer K., Korn H.E., Gebräuchliche Abkürzungen des 16-20. Jahrhunderts, Marburg 1986.
Dülfer K., Korn H.E., Schrifttafeln zur deutschen Paläographie des 16-20. Jahrhunderts, cz. 1-2, Marburg 2004.
Eckhardt H.W., Stüber G., Trumpp T., Thun kund und zu wissen jedermänniglich. Paläographie-Archivalische Textsorten-Aktenkunde, Köln 1999.
Eis G., Altdeutsche Handschriften, München 1980.
Gebräuchliche Abkürzungen des 16.-20. Jahrhunderts, Marburg 2000.
Grun P.A., Leseschlüssel zu unserer alten Schrift, Görlitz 1935.
Grun P.A., Schlüssel zu alten und neuen Abkürzungen. Wörterbuch lateinischer und deutscher Abkürzungen des sten Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, Limburg-Lahn 1966.
Grusza A.I., Bielaruskaja kirilicznaja paleografija, Mińsk 2006.
Hamann M., Paläographie. Lehrbriefe für das Fachschulfernstudium für Archivare, Potsdam 1957.
Hartmann S., Fraktur oder Antiqua: der Schriftstreit von 1881 bis 1941, Frankfurt am Main 1999.
Hulakovsky J. M., Abbreviaturae vocabulorum, Pragae, 1852.
Kapr A., ABC - Fundament zum rechten Schreiben: eine Schriftfibel, Leipzig 1958.
Kapr A., Deutsche Schriftskunst. Ein Fachbuch für Schriftschaffende, Dresden 1960.
Kapr A., Fraktur. Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften, Mainz 1993.
Kapr A., Schriftenkunst. Geschichte, Autonomie und Schönkeit der lateinischen Buchstaben, Dresden 1979.
Killius Ch., Die Antiqua-Fraktur Debatte um 1800 und ihre historische Herleitung, Wiesbaden 1999.
Lindsay W.M., Notae Latinae: An account of abbreviation in Latin MSS. of the early minuscule period (c. 700-850), Cambridge, 1915.
Murawiew A.W., Sbornik snimkow z russkowo pisma XI-XVIII w., Moskwa 1963.
Nikołajewa A.T., Russkaja paleografia, Moskwa 1981.
Paoli C., Grundriss zu Vorlesungen ueber lateinische Palaeographie und Urkundenlehre, Innsbruck, 1889.
Quaritch B., Palæography. Notes upon the history of writing and the medieval art of illumination, London 1894.
Rejser S.A., Russkaja paleografia nowowo wriemieni. Neografia, Moskwa, 1982.
Schrifttafeln zur Erlernung der Lateinischen Palaeographie, wyd. Arndt W., Tangl M., Berlin 1904.
Steffens F., Lateinische Paläographie, Berlin 1929.
Süß H., Deutsche Schreibschrift. Lesen und Schreiben lernen. Lehrbuch, Augsburg 1994.
Szcziepkin W.N., Russkaja paleografia, „Nauka“, Mоskwa 1967.
Szcziepkin W.N., Uczebnik russkoj paleografii, Moskwa 1918.
Tichomirow Ł.W. Russkaja paleografia, Moskwa 1952.
Traube L., Lehre und Geschichte der Abkürzungen, München 1909.
Verdenhalven F., Die deutsche Schrift. Ein Übungsbuch, Degener Verlag, 1991.

Internet sites

Helpful in palaeography

In nomine Domini. Nauka paleografii łacińskiej (The science of Latin palaeography)
Project of Dr Magdalena Biniaś-Szkopek (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan). The site contains interactive exercises with the transcription of medieval and modern documents prepared in Latin.
Lublin w dokumencie (Lublin in documents)
A joint project of the "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN" centre and the State Archives in Lublin – an interactive presentation of the oldest documents from the resources of the State Archives in Lublin, enriched with, among others, transcriptions, translations and analysis of diplomatic documents.
Ad fontes
An interactive website created by the University of Zurich, in cooperation with archives and scientific institutions in Switzerland. It contains exercises for deciphering manuscripts in Latin, German, French, and Old-Norse (!), exercises in identifying types of writing, or the dating of documents. In addition, there is information about the history and typology of writing, tips and sample letters. The website is in German.
Alte deutsche Schrifte
A website dedicated to old German writing – Sütterlinschrift and Fraktur. Sütterlinschrift was introduced into German schools as a basic type of handwriting at the beginning of the 20th century (it was used officially until 1941). Fraktur was used in Germany in print from the 16th century. The website contains exercises, sample letters, examples and transcriptions of documents. Website in German.
Deutsche Kurrentschrift
A website dedicated to Kurrent (cursive Gothic writing, simplified). Website in German.
DigiPal (The Digital Resource and Database for Palaeography, Manuscript Studies and Diplomatic)
Project developed by the Department of Digital Humanities, Kings College in London (end date of September 2014). Its aim is to create a base of English documents from the 11th century together with detailed descriptions, also in terms of analysis of the writing. Website in English.
Geschichte Online
A project of the University of Vienna (in collaboration with other universities) aimed at history students. The Paläographie section contains interactive exercises for transcribing documents written in Kurrent. Website in German.
Interactive Album of Mediaeval Palaeography
A website of the University of Lyon for palaeography studies, it contains interactive exercises for transcribing medieval documents prepared in Latin, French and Italian. Website in French and English.
Interaktivní paleografická čítanka
Project of Prof. Petr Vorel and software engineers from the University of Pardubice. It allows users to exercise their deciphering skills, based on texts placed together with transcriptions and additional texts designated for further exercise (without transcriptions). Website in Czech.
Materiali didattici per la Paleografia latina
A website of the University of Cassino presenting materials (scans, faxes and documents, together with their transcriptions). Website in Italian.
Medieval Writing
A website dedicated to medieval writing, containing interactive exercises for transcribing documents, information about writing and writing workshops, dictionaries, examples of writing types, etc. Website in English.
Paläographie Online
An Internet course in palaeography conducted within the framework of Virtuelle Hochschule Bayern (VSB). It is divided into 2 parts, in which the participant conducts interactive exercises, working on documents in Latin and German (from ancient writing to the 16th century). In addition, there is also access to a knowledge base of palaeography, dictionaries, and lists of abbreviations. There is a fee for the course for people who are not students of VSB. Website in German.
Paleo anglo-norman
Courses in medieval and early-modern palaeography developed by the Centre for English Local History by the University of Leicester. Documents in Latin and English are presented. Website in English.
Scriptorium: Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts Online
Course of the University of Cambridge for transcribing English handwriting from the period 1500-1700. Website in English.
The British National Archives provides access to the Reading old documents section on its website. The section includes a tutorial for self-learning palaeography, covering documents written in English from the years 1500-1800, as well as courses in Latin. Website in English.

Collections of manuscripts (and not only) online

zbiory Archiwum Narodowego w Krakowie - collections of the National Archives in Krakow - selected materials from the resources of the Archives, including a few town record books (including the oldest kept surviving town record book)
ARMARIUM.dominikańska biblioteka cyfrowa (Dominican digital library) - providing access to historical manuscripts, mainly those of the Dominicans
Biblioteka Narodowa Polona - collections of the National Library in Warsaw (including manuscripts)
Polskie biblioteki cyfrowe (Polish digital libraries)
szukajwarchiwach.pl - collections of Polish state archives
Collections of the Zakładu Narodowego im.Ossolińskich - including manuscripts from Wroclaw and Lviv
Biblioteca italiana - including manuscripts from the collections of the Library of the University of Rome
Biblioteka watykańska (Vatican Library)
Scans of manuscripts from the collections of the British Library
Codices Electronici Sangallenses
(CESG) - digital collections of the Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland
e-codices - digital collections of medieval and early-modern manuscripts from the resources of Swiss libraries
Europeana Regia - scans of documents, spread throughout several European libraries, from the collections of the Carolingian dynasty (8th - 9th century); King Charles V of France (14th century) as well as the kings of Aragon and Naples
Gallica - collections of the National Library of France – including a collection of manuscripts from the Library's resources
Collections of manuscripts and incunables: Library of the Goethe University in Frankfurt nad Mein; library of the University of Cologne and Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel
Manuscripta Mediaevalia
- medieval manuscripts from the collections of German libraries
Monasterium - a digital archive presenting parchment and paper documents from the resources of European archives
Manuscriptorium (European Digital Library of Manuscripts) - over 5 million scans of manuscripts, prints, maps and other documents, from the resources of European archives, libraries and museums
Das Münchener Digitalisierungszentrum (MDZ) Digithale Bibliothek - including scans of medieval and early-modern manuscripts from the resources of Die Bayerische Staatsbibliothek